Does the Lack of a Secure Parental Attachment lead to Personality Disorders in Adulthood?
 Studies show that an insecure attachment regarding the parent/child relationship leads to unfulfilled emotional needs as a child and adult. Not experiencing enough love and praise, being consistently criticized, or being made to feel unimportant becomes the norm for the child. Given the negative impact of insecure parent/child attachments throughout the lifespan, interventions focusing on the emotional needs of the individual might need to be considered in order to aid in the therapeutic process. Additionally, research concludes that personality disorders can be traced back to early childhood experiences. In the article, Early Trauma and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior in Adults, Armstrong (2008) explains that, “ it is important understand that childhood trauma and maltreatment may be the root cause of their adult antisocial behaviors.” 

It seems as though research supports the idea of negative effects of an insecure attachment.

However, when exploring a positive temperament of a young child who is experiencing the same scenario, they seem to manage and adapt to whatever life throws at them. Based on this, it is reasonable to say that negative caregiver behavior in childhood does not necessarily lead to personality disorders in adulthood. – Tonya Tullis 

Digging Deeper 

While behavioral therapy may modify negative behaviors, what happens when these unfavorable patterns will not cease? This is where psychotherapy can be an advantage. Psychotherapy asserts that most individuals are unaware of the causes of their distressing behavioral patterns. The outcome of this type of therapy brings to light the unconscious factors that influence present relationships. By investigating the root of the behavioral problem, eventually, individuals begin to resolve hidden struggles and work through emotions that may be causing conflict in relationships.


Behavioral therapy is an acceptable approach for individuals who need behavioral modification right away. When social skills are challenged, behavioral therapy is a great resource. However, in respect to relational issues, Behavioral therapy ignores emotional factors and only treats the characteristics of a problem. I like to refer to it as “Band-aid Therapy “. 

I’ll write more on getting to the root issue in my next post.

The Wisdom Of Maya

“I am convinced that most people do not grow up…We marry and dare to have children and call that growing up. I think what we do is mostly grow old. We carry accumulation of years in our bodies, and on our faces, but generally our real selves, the children inside, are innocent and shy as magnolias.”
― Maya Angelou

What are your thoughts?
Below is an article that provides more explanation for Maya’s beautiful words.

When Your ‘Inner Child’ Hijacks Your Adult Relationships

By Jill P. Weber, Ph.D. 

When emotionally overwhelmed, people tend to regress and revert to childhood strategies to get their needs met. When the mind is overloaded it is natural to look for immediate gratification. It’s at those times that the inner child might wreak havoc on your relationships, or even your life. People who are chronically overloaded with stress, life transitions, medical conditions or chronic relationship conflict may rely on childhood strategies to get their needs met. And for those adults who were not adequately nurtured or made to feel safe in childhood, their inner child can play out destructively throughout adulthood. Even without childhood trauma however, everyone has an inner child that needs to be kept in check.
Allowing your inner child out too much means you are constantly indulging your immediate needs and you never get to see that you can tolerate not getting everything just your way all of the time. A “little self” becomes an adult who inside feels weak and terrified but projects strength by using rage as ammunition. As you see you can tolerate distress and improve your relationships without these tactics you will no longer need ‘little you’ to handle your adult issues. 
Here are a few examples of destructive “Inner Child” dynamics and how they can wreak havoc on your adult life.

1. The Tantrum King/Queen: Think of the child who every time she doesn’t get what she wants cries, screams, wails and if that’s not enough throws herself on the ground. If you are an adult Tantrum King/Queen you have serious difficulty accepting “no” from your partner or your partner may feel he/she has to walk on eggshells in your presence. People may give you what you want simply because they are afraid of your emotional reactions. Some who fall into this dynamic do not even realize they are doing so — they genuinely feel upset and can’t help but to express it. If you are doing this on a regular basis, every time you find yourself fretting with upset about a need not being met take 10 minutes before you respond to your partner. Step back and remind yourself that even though you are feeling something very intensely, you do not have to act on this feeling. Do something to distract momentarily — breathe, take a shower, go for a quick walk, try to take the edge off the emotion — then revisit your original feeling and see if you can either “let it go” or communicate it with less intensity.
2. The Manipulator: It’s astonishing how good little kids are at tricking adults into giving in or giving them what they want — “but you said, I could!” or “I have been good all day!” They naturally find ways to get adult sympathy so that they will receive what they want. There is nothing pathological about this tendency as it is in part the egos attempt to balance the id and superego. Of course children grow out of this as they become better able to sublimate some of their immediate needs without having to use manipulation. In adulthood, however, some fall victim to still using manipulation as a way to get every need gratified or out of a fear of being direct with people. Constantly demanding and contorting things to get one’s needs met feels burdensome to others and can result in rage on the part of your partners. If you fall into this dynamic, instead of manipulating your partner to give you what you want or to make him/her do what you want, try to tolerate not getting what you want or state directly your needs without trickery. The more you do for yourself and talk directly with your partners about what you need and why, the less you will rely on manipulation.
3. The Good Soldier: This dynamic describes when a person is so intolerant of conflict or upset that they continually put on a brave/happy face even when their internal feelings may be more complicated. Think of the child whose home life is hostile or unsafe but at school the child is functional and competent — the child may appear fine and uncommonly resilient. Adults who fall into this habit often have secret lives outside of their committed unions. This is the person who, seemingly out of nowhere, tells their partner they want to divorce/breakup. The partners of good soldiers are often shocked and want to work on the problem, but the good solider is gone before this can materialize. Good soldiers are afraid of conflict and work so hard to make others happy they neglect their own feelings. If you notice yourself doing this, try to be more real with those you care about; test the waters, there may be more room for the real you in your adult relationships than you think. If there isn’t, consider going into couples therapy so a trained professional can help you talk about your more complicated feelings and help your partner to hear you.
4. The Rebel Without A Cause: This inner child dynamic describes an adult who is behaviorally acting out in his/her adult relationships. Just as teenagers sometimes get their needs met on the sly so as to not have to deal with parents or authority figures — sneak out of the house, stay out late, say they are one place when they are actually at another, promiscuity, substance abuse — the adult uses these same means to get a fix outside of his/her committed relationship. When they feel bored, upset, frustrated with their partner, instead of talking with them about their upset they act out behaviorally. A person caught up in this dynamic may be involved in affairs or have a tendency to have a secret life that their partner knows nothing about. The Rebel Without A Cause is similar to the teenager in that they never actually grow up and tell themselves “no” to adolescent proclivities. If you are a “rebel” know that continuing this way will burn you out eventually, whether it be physically, emotionally or financially. Destructive behavioral habits can be broken, start being your own best parent and tell yourself “no” to things that are going to make you feel worst later.

The Big Picture 

Ralph Waldo Emerson writes, “Bad times have a scientific value. These are occasions a good learner would not miss.” 

Though, I am not welcoming adversity with open arms, I have learned that each situation has strengthened my character, while gaining a fresh perspective and eventually attain new found wisdom. In the midst of life’s hardships, the possibility of a new understanding dwells within. However, during these circumstances, it is tough to see through complexities and perceive the event as an opportunity. By taking a positive stance, we allow ourselves the freedom of knowing that we are not going to remain stuck and eventually we will see the big picture.



What Would Herman Munster Do?

The following is a case study I wrote in a Marriage and Family counseling class. Some of the terms may be hard to understand if you are not familiar counselor jargon. However, if you remember the Munsters, now you can understand what was really going on in their family. haha! ( Most of the story is completely fictitious, but it is fun to read!)

The Munster Family has come to counseling to seek understanding on how to handle the stress of their marriage, along with understanding Eddies problematic behavior.

The Munster Family, while decidedly odd, have fairly typical family dynamics. Herman, is the sole wage-earner in the family. Lily Munster is the nurturing stay at home mother. While Herman is the head of household, Lily makes many decisions also. Herman and Lilly have an only child, Eddie who desperately wants a little bother. Grandpa, a retired scientist, is Lillys father who lives with them in the basement of their home. Grandpa is considerably close to his daughter and oftentimes feels excluded from the family. In addition, Herman has a twin brother, Charlie, who has is cut off from Hermans parents. 
Against Herman’s wishes, Grandpa has recently built a little brother robot, Freddie, for Eddie. However, Eddie has become resentful and of the attention given to Freddie by his mother. Eddie has been disrespectful to Lilly and will no longer listen to her directions. Additionally, Herman blames Grandpa for the turmoil between Lilly and Eddie.
Presently, Herman’s absent twin brother, Charlie, has coxed Lilly into believing that he is destitute. As result, he is staying at the Munster home against Herman’s wishes. Consequently, Herman has become spiteful of Lilly.
*The first technique in understanding the family dynamics is to construct the Genogram . Within the Genogram I am distinguishing the core issues of the Munster Family. The Genogram will note the adverse family patterns that have been unintentionally passed down to the present day.
*Additionally, while conducting a group family counseling session, I am examining the fusion within the the family dynamic. Considering the emotional reactivity of each person, I will pinpoint the level of self differentiation of each family member. I will also be looking for the possibility of emotional triangles within the Munster family. Noting the nuclear family emotional system, I will investigate the means of communication of each family member. Considering the emotional cutoff of Charlie will be a consideration in unresolved issues between he and Herman. Futher,I will be noting the multigenerational transmission process. Understanding Eddies sibling position will be another objective in understanding this family.
*While noting the fusion in the family, I recognize that Lilly tends to be over-adaptive when under pressure. I also notice the triangulation of Lilly and her father in relation to Herman and Charlie.Assisting the Munster family in transition, I will take an objective stance focusing on educating and reaffirming the family process. 

Not Just A Quarterback Coach

My Freshman year in college was met with many growing pains. These “pains” made me mad, sad, frustrated and lonely. Nevertheless, my happy-go-lucky personality fooled many into believing I was just fine. However, there was one person who saw through my facade. In a weightlifting elective class,  I met my teacher, who was the rugged and tough Quarterback coach that never smiled. Yet, I could see through his tough exterior! I joked and kidded with him hoping to get him to smile. Needless to say, he was always matter-of- fact. One day, at the end of class, he said, “Tonya, you need to work on loving yourself.” I thought, how did he know? I said, “ok Coach Robins how do I do that?” He said,” write down 5 positive things about yourself, put them on your bathroom mirror and say them everyday.” I will never forget those wise words.